Publications associated with GraphoGame/GraphoLearn technology

Below is a publication list of selected scientific publications since 2007 from our research group. Our aim is to deliver evidence-based and scientifically studied learning games.

Peer-reviewed articles:


February, P. J. (2022). GraphoGame: A Computer-Assisted Reading Acquisition Tool – An Enabling Support to Reading in the African Classroom. In C. Lane (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Acquiring 21st Century Literacy Skills Through Game-Based Learning (pp. 431–454). IGI Global.

Economou, M., Van Herck, S., Vanden Bempt, F., Glatz, T., Wouters, J., Ghesquière, P., Vanderauwera, J., & Vandermosten, M. (2022). Investigating the Impact of Early Literacy Training on White Matter Structure in Prereaders at Risk for Dyslexia. Cerebral Cortex.

Lassault, J., Sprenger-Charolles, L., Albrand, J-P., Alavoine, E., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Ziegler, J.C. (2022). Testing the effects of GraphoGame against a computer-assisted math intervention in primary school. Scientific Studies of Reading.

Patel, P., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2022). Assessing the effectiveness of a game‐based phonics intervention for first and second grade English language learners in India: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(1), 76–89.


Lyytinen, H., Lohvansuu, K., Hämäläinen, J., Pitkänen, M., Leppänen, P., & Richardson, U. (2021). Early identification and prevention of reading problems. In Graf, P. & Dozois, D.J.A. (Eds.), Handbook on the state of the art in applied psychology, Wiley Blackwell, NJ (USA), (pp. 293-311).

Lyytinen, H.J., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Li, H., Pugh, K., & Richardson, U. (2021). Supporting Acquisition of Spelling Skills in Different Orthographies Using an Empirically Validated Digital Learning Environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 566220.

Tavares, L. B., da Fonseca, A. L. S., Braga, D. S., Costa, S. B. T., & Pereira, N. A. C. (2021). Possibilidades pedagógicas para a dislexia a partir de aplicativos móveis: conhecendo o silabando e o graphogame Pedagogical possibilities for dyslexia using mobile applications: learning about syllabus and graphogame. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(11), 107015-107026.

Wilson, A., Ahmed, H., Mead, N., Noble H., Richardson, U., Wolpert, M. A., & Goswami, U. (2021). Neurocognitive Predictors of Response to Intervention With GraphoGame Rime. Frontiers in Education 6, Article 639294.


Ahmed, H., Wilson, A., Mead, N., Noble, H., Richardson, U., A. Wolpert, M. A., & Goswami, U. (2020). An Evaluation of the Efficacy of GraphoGame Rime for Promoting English Phonics Knowledge in Poor Readers. Frontiers in Education, 5, 1–12.

Benavides-Varela, S., Callegher, C. Z., Fagiolini, B., Leo, I., Altoè, G., & Lucangeli, D. (2020). Effectiveness of digital-based interventions for children with mathematical learning difficulties: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 157, Article 103953.

Borleffs, E., Zwarts, F., Siregar, A. R. & Maassen, B. A. M. (2020). GraphoLearn SI: Digital learning support for reading difficulties in a transparent orthography. Human Technology, 16(1), 92–111.

Carvalhais, L., Limpo, T., Richardson, U., & Castro, S.L. (2020). Effects of the Portuguese GraphoGame on reading, spelling, and phonological awareness in second graders struggling to read. The Journal of Writing Research, 12(1), 9–34.

Deshaies, I., Miron, J. M., Picard, C., & Masson, S. (2020). Mieux préparer les élèves du préscolaire à l’apprentissage de l’arithmétique: une recension des études proposant des programmes d’intervention s’ appuyant sur les neurosciences. Revue Neuroeducation Journal, 6(1), 37–58.

Hautala, J., Heikkilä, R., Nieminen, L., Rantanen, V., Latvala J-M. & Richardson, U. (2020). Identification of Reading Difficulties by a Digital Game-Based Assessment Technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(5), 1003–1028.

Li, Y., Chen, X., Li, H., Sheng, X., Chen, L., Richardson, U. & Lyytinen, H. (2020). A computer‐based Pinyin intervention for disadvantaged children in China: Effects on Pinyin skills, phonological awareness, and character reading. Dyslexia, 1–17.

Mehringer, H., Fraga-González, G., Pleisch, G., Röthlisberger, M., Aepli, F., Keller, V., Karipidis, I. & Brem, S. (2020). (Swiss) GraphoLearn: an app-based tool to support beginning readers. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 15, Article 5.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Wallfelt, S., Engström, E., Wass, M., Sahlén, B., Pfändtner, K., I Lyxell B., Kallioinen P., Lindgren† M., Ors M. & Uhlén, I. (2020). Reading Ability and Working Memory in School-Age Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Using Cochlear Implants and/or Hearing Aids: A 3-Year Follow-Up on Computer-Based Phonics Training. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 5(6), 1388-1399.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Kalnak, N., & Jennische, M. (2020). Intensive computer-based phonics training in the educational setting of children with Down syndrome: An explorative study. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 1–25.

Niemelä, M., Kärkkäinen, T., Äyrämö, S., Ronimus, M., Richardson, U. & Lyytinen, H. (2020). Game learning analytics for understanding reading skills in transparent writing system. British Journal of Educational Technology.

Nshimbi, J. C., Serpell, R., & Westerholm, J. (2020). Using a phone-based learning tool as an instructional resource for initial literacy learning in rural African families. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 10(1), 1–9.

Ronimus, M., Eklund, K., Westerholm, J., Ketonen, R. & Lyytinen, H. (2020). A mobile game as a support tool for children with severe difficulties in reading and spelling. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Tijms, J., Fraga-González, G., Karipidis, I. I., & Brem, S. (2020). The Role of Letter-Speech Sound Integration in Normal and Abnormal Reading Development. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 1441.

Thomson, J. M., Foldnes, N., Uppstad, P. H., Njå, M. Solheim, O. J., & Lundetræc, K. (2020). Can children’s instructional gameplay activity be used as a predictive indicator of reading skills? Learning and Instruction, 68, Article 101348.


Aunio, P. (2019). Early Numeracy Skills Learning and Learning Difficulties—Evidence-based Assessment and Interventions. In Cognitive foundations for improving mathematical learning (pp. 195–214). Academic Press.

Cruz, J., Constante, P., Lopes, E., Amaral, J., Quintas, D., & Mackaaij, M. J. (2019). “A Ler Vamos…” e “LER Cãofiante”: eficácia de uma intervenção no 2º ano de escolaridade. Letras de Hoje, 54(3), 395–406.

Lyytinen, H., Richardson, U. & Aro, M. (2019). Developmental Dyslexia in Finnish. In Verhoeven, L., Perfetti, C., & Pugh, K. (Eds.) Developmental Dyslexia across Languages and Writing Systems (pp. 118–132). Cambridge University Press.

Lyytinen, H., Ojanen, E., Jere-Folotiya, J., Ngorosho, S. D., Sampa, F., February, P., Malasha, F., Munachaka, J., Pugh K. & Serpell, R. (2019). Challenges Associated with Reading Acquisition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Promotion of Literacy in Multilingual Contexts. In Improving Early Literacy Outcomes (pp. 119–132). Brill Sense.

McTigue, E. M., Solheim, O. J., Zimmer, W. K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2019). Critically reviewing GraphoGame across the world: Recommendations and cautions for research and implementation of computer-assisted instruction for word-reading acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly 55,(1), 45–73.

O’Brien, B. A., Habib, M. & Onnis, L. (2019). Technology-based tools for English literacy Intervention: Examining intervention grain size and individual differences. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 2625.

Ronimus, M., Eklund, K., Pesu, L., & Lyytinen, H. (2019). Supporting struggling readers with digital game-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development 67, 639–663.

Njå, M. (2019). Players’ progression through GraphoGame, an early literacy game: influence of game design and context of play. Human Technology, 15(2).

Engström, E., Kallioinen, P., von Mentzer, C. N., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Sahlén, B., … & Uhlén, I. (2019). Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials and mismatch negativity. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 117, 17-25.

Pleisch, G., Karipidis, I. I., Brauchli, C., Röthlisberger, M., Hofstetter, C., Stämpfli, P., … & Brem, S. (2019). Emerging neural specialization of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex to characters through phonological association learning in preschool children. NeuroImage, 189, 813–831.


Aro, T., Viholainen, H., Koponen, T., Peura, P., Räikkönen, E., Salmi, P., Sorvo, R., & Aro, M. (2018). Can reading fluency and self-efficacy of reading fluency be enhanced with an intervention targeting the sources of self-efficacy?. Learning and Individual Differences67, 53-66

Karipidis, I. I., Pleisch, G., Brandeis, D., Roth, A., Röthlisberger, M., Schneebeli, M., Walitza, S., & Brem, S. (2018). Simulating reading acquisition: The link between reading outcome and multimodal brain signatures of letter–speech sound learning in prereaders. Scientific Reports, 8(1), Article 7121.

Patel, P., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2018). GraphoLearn India: The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention in Supporting Struggling Readers of English. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1045. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01045 Open access

Solheim, O. J., Frijters, J. C., Lundetræ, K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2018). Effectiveness of an early reading intervention in a semi-transparent orthography: A group randomised controlled trial. Learning and Instruction, 58, 65-79.

Ngorosho, D. (2018). Enhancing the Acquisition of Basic Reading Skills in Kiswahili Using GraphoGame. Papers in Education and Development, (35).

Serpell, R. (2018). Grounding Innovative Promotion of Literacy in Local Funds of Knowledge. Papers in Education and Development, (35).

Sampa, F., Ojanen, E., Westerholm, J., Ketonen, R. & Lyytinen, H. (2018). Efficacy of national literacy programs: implications children’s early reading skills in familiar language in Zambia. Journal of Psychology In Africa, 28 (2), 128-135. DOI:10.1080/14330237.2018.1435050

Worth, J., Nelson, J., Harland, J., Bernardinelli, D., & Styles, B. (2018). GraphoGame Rime. Evaluation report and executive summary. National Foundation for Educational Research. This is not peer-reviewed publication, but an independent evaluation report.


Serpell, R., Jere-Folotiya, J., Chansa-Kabali, T., Munachaka, J., Maumbi, M. N., Yalukanda, C., … & Lyytinen, H. (2017). A Culturally Sensitive Approach to Promoting Initial Literacy Development in Africa: Ongoing and Planned Research and Development at the University of Zambia’s Centre for Promotion of Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa (CAPOLSA). In Handbook of Applied Developmental Science in Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 313-334). Springer, New York, NY. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7328-6_17 Open access

Lundetræ, K., Solheim, O. J., Schwippert, K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2017). Protocol:’On Track’, a group-randomized controlled trial of an early reading intervention. International Journal of Educational Research, 86, 87-95.

Puolakanaho, A., & Latvala, J. M. (2017). Embedding Preschool Assessment Methods into Digital Learning Games to Predict Early Reading Skills. Human Technology, 13, 216-236.

Borleffs, E., Glatz, T. K., Daulay, D. A., Richardson, U., Zwarts, F., & Maassen, B. A. M. (2017). GraphoGame SI: the development of a technology-enhanced literacy learning tool for Standard Indonesian. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1-19.

Ruiz, J., Lassault, J., Sprenger-Charolles, L., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Ziegler, J. (2017). GraphoGame: un outil numérique pour enfants en difficultés d’apprentissage de la lecture. ANAE:Actualtites de neuropsychologie de l’enfant, 333-343. Open access

Li, Y., Li, H., De, X., Sheng, X., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2017). 游戏化学习促进学生个性化发展的实证研究——以GraphoGame拼音游戏为例 [An Evidence-based Research on Facilitating Students’ Development of Individualize Learning by Game-based Learning-Pinyin GraphoGame as an Example]. China Educational Technology. 364, 95-101.

Baker, D. L., Basaraba, D. L., Smolkowski, K., Conry, J., Hautala, J., Richardson, U., … & Cole, R. (2017). Exploring the cross-linguistic transfer of reading skills in Spanish to English in the context of a computer adaptive reading intervention. Bilingual Research Journal, 1-18.

Rosas, R., Escobar, J. P., Ramírez, M. P., Meneses, A., & Guajardo, A. (2017). Impact of a computer-based intervention in Chilean children at risk of manifesting reading difficulties/Impacto de una intervención basada en ordenador en niños chilenos con riesgo de manifestar dificultades lectoras. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 40(1), 158-188.

Karipidis, I., Pleisch, G., Röthlisberger, M., Hofstetter, C., Dornbierer, D., Stämpfli, P., & Brem, S. (2017). Neural initialization of audiovisual integration in prereaders at varying risk for developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 1038-1055.

Nieminen, L., Hautala, J., Heikkilä, R., Rantanen, V., Latvala, J.-M., & Richardson, U. (2017). ReadAll-peli: digitaalinen apu lukutaidon varhaiskehityksen tukemiseen ja arviointiin. In H. Savolainen, R. Vilkko, & L. Vähäkylä (Eds.), Oppimisen tulevaisuus (pp. 70-79). Helsinki, Finland: Gaudeamus Oy. This is not a peer-reviewed publication but a chapter in a research book.

Richardson, U., & Nieminen, L. (2017). The contributions and limits of phonological awareness in learning to read. In N. Kucirkova, C. E. Snow, V. Grøver, & C. McBride (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Early Literacy Education: A Contemporary Guide to Literacy Teaching and Interventions in a Global Context (pp. 264-272). Routledge. This is not a peer-reviwed publication but a chapter in a research book.


Li, Y., Li, H., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2016). Early identification of poor readers and preventive training in Chinese using Pinyin Graphogame: results from disadvantaged children in Mainland. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 831.

Mourgues, C., Tan, M., Hein, S., Ojanen, E., Reich, J., Lyytinen, H., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2016). Paired associate learning tasks and their contribution to reading skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 46, 54-63. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.12.003

Sucena, A., Silva, A. F., & Viana, F. L. (2016). Intervenção precoce nas dificuldades de aprendizagem da leitura com recurso ao software Graphogame 1. Letrônica, 9(2), 200-212.


Ojanen E., Ronimus M., Ahonen T., Chansa-Kabali T., February P., Jere-Folotiya J., Kauppinen K-P., Ketonen R., Ngorosho D., Pitkänen M., Puhakka S., Sampa F., Walubita G., Yalukanda C., Pugh K., Richardson U., Serpell R.. and Lyytinen H. (2015). GraphoGame – a catalyst for multi-level promotion of literacy in diverse contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 671, 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00671 Open access

Ojanen, E., Jere-Folotiya, J., Yalukanda, C., Sampa, F., Nshimbi, C., Katongo, M., . . . , & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Mobile Solution for Better Reading Instruction in Rural Africa. In P. Cunningham, & M. Cunningham (Eds.), IST-Africa 2015 Conference Proceedings (pp. 408-420). IEEE. doi:10.1109/ISTAFRICA.2015.7190559

Puhakka, S., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Technology enhanced literacy learning in multilingual Sub-Saharan Africa : The case of GraphoGame Kikuyu and Kiswahili adaptations in Kenya. Piet A. M. Kommers, Pedro Isaias and Tomayess Issa (Eds), “Perspectives on Social Media: A Yearbook,” 183-190.

Ronimus, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Is School a Better Environment than Home for Digital Game-Based Learning?: The Case of GraphoGame. Human Technology, 11 (2), 123-147. doi:10.17011/ht/urn.201511113637 Open access


Ronimus, M. & Richardson, U. (2014). Digital game-based training of early reading skills: overview of the GraphoGame method in a highly transparent orthography. Estudios de Psicologia, 35 (3), 648-661.

Jere-Folotiya, J., Chansa-Kabali, T., Munachaka, J., Sampa, F., Yalukanda, C., Westerholm, J., Richardson, U., Serpell, R., Lyytinen. H. (2014). The effect of using a mobile literacy game to improve literacy levels of grade one students in Zambian schools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62, 4, 417-436. doi:10.1007/s11423-014-9342-9

Papadopoulos, T., Ktisti, C., Christoforou, C., Loizou, M. (2014). Cognitive and Linguistic Dynamics of Reading Remediation. A Tribute to J. P. Das. In: Papadopoulos, T., Parrila, R., Kirby, J. (Eds). Cognition, Intelligence, and Achievement (pp. 311-343). New York: Academic Press.

Pennala, R., Richardson, U., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., Martin, M. (2014). Computer game as a tool for training the identification of phonemic length. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 39, 4, 149-158. doi:10.3109/14015439.2013.810302

Puhakka, C., S., Lyytinen, H., Richardson, U. (2014). Technology enhanced literacy learning in multilingual Sub-Saharan Africa. In Perspectives on Social Media: A Yearbook, P. Kommers, P., Isaias & O. Issa (Eds), (pp. 183-190). London: Routledge.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B., Dahlström, Ö., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Kallioinen, P. & Uhlén, I. (2014). Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 448-455. DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12149

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B., Dahlström, Ö., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., … & Uhlén, I. (2014). The phonics approach in swedish children using cochlear implants or hearing aids: inspecting phonological gain. Journal of Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids, 2(3), 117. doi:10.4172/2375-4427.1000117

Lyytinen, H. (2014). How to assure reading skills for all. In M. Matthies, L. Pulkkinen, L.M. Pinto & C. Clouder (Eds.) Improving the Quality of Chilhood in Europe 2014, Volume 5 (pp.106-117). Brussels, Belgium: Alliance for Childhood European Network Foundation.

Richardson, U. & Lyytinen, H. (2014).  The GraphoGame method: The theoretical and methodological background of the technology-enhanced learning environment for learning to read. Human Technology, 10 (1), 39-60. doi:10.17011/ht/urn.201405281859 Open access

Kamykowska, J., Haman, E., Latvala, J-M , Richardson, U. & Lyytinen H. (2014). Developmental changes of early reading skills in six-year-old polish children and GraphoGame as a computer-based intervention to support them. L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 13-14, 1573-1731. Open access

Pennala, R., Richardson, R., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., & Martin, M. (2014). Computer game as a tool for training identification of phonemic length. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 149-158.

Ronimus, M., Kujala, J., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2014). Children’s engagement during digital game-based learning of reading: The effects of time, rewards, and challenge. Computers & Education, 71, 237-246.


Heikkilä, R., Aro, M., Närhi, V., Westerholm, J. & Ahonen, T. (2013). Does training in syllable recognition improve reading speed? A computer-based trial with poor readers from second and third grade. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(6), 398-414.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B.,  Malin, W., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Kallioinen, P., Uhlén, I. (2013). Computer-assisted training of phoneme–grapheme correspondence for children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Effects on phonological processing skills. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 77, 12, 2049–2057.

Ojanen, E., Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2013). Technology-Enhanced Literacy Learning in Zambia: Observations from a Multilingual Literacy Environment. Insights in Learning Disabilities, 10 (2), 103-127.

Bhide, A., Power, A., & Goswami, U. (2013). A Rhythmic Musical Intervention for Poor Readers: A Comparison of Efficacy With a Letter-Based Intervention. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7 (2), 113-123.

Kyle, F., Kujala, J.V., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Goswami, U. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme. Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (1), 61-76.

Bach, S., Richardson, U., Brandeis, D., Martin, E., & Brem, S. (2013). Print- specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade. NeuroImage, 82, 605-615.

Saine, N., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2013). Long-term intervention effects of spelling development for children with compromised preliteracy skills. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 29 (4), 333-357.


Lovio, R., Halttunen, A., Lyytinen, H., Näätänen, R., & Kujala, T. (2012). Reading skill and neural processing accuracy improvement after a 3-hour intervention in preschoolers with difficulties in reading-related skills. Brain Research, 1448, 42-55.

Lyytinen, H., & Lampola M. (2012). Tieteen tuloksista maailmalle – haasteita esimerkkien valossa. Tiedepolitiikka, 37, (2), 7-16.

Lyytinen, H., Havimäki, S-M., Latvala, J-M., Lampola, M. & Richardson, U. (2012). Ekapeli – oppimispeli lukemisen ydintaitojen harjoittamiseen. In: Hautamäki, A. & Oksanen, K. (Eds.) Yliopisto palveluinnovaatioiden kehittäjänä (s. 114-133). Jyväskylän yliopisto, Jyväskylä.


Aro, M., Huemer, S., Heikkilä, R., & Mönkkönen, V. (2011). Sujuva lukutaito suomalaislapsen haasteena. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 153-155.

Guttorm, T.K., Alho-Näveri, L., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Brain activation measures in predicting reading skills and evaluating intervention effects in children at risk for dyslexia. In P. McCardle, B. Miller, J. R. Lee & O.J.L. Tzeng (Eds.), Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link. (pp.133-140). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Latvala, J.-M., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). LukiMat ja Ekapeli – ennaltaehkäisevää tukea suomalaisille lukiriskilapsille. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 147-152.

Lyytinen, H. (2011). Lukivaikeuden varhainen tunnistus ja ennaltaehkäisy on mahdollista. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 156-157.

Pennala, R., Richardson, R., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., & Martin, M. (2011). Tietokoneavusteinen suomen kielen kvantiteetin harjoittelu: venäjänkielisen suomea opettelevan lapsen ja suomenkielisen luku- ja kirjoitushäiriöisen lapsen vertailu. Puhe ja kieli, 31, 1, 3-24.

Richardson, U., Aro, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Prevention of reading difficulties in highly transparent Finnish. In P. McCardle, J. Ren, & O. Tzeng (Eds.). Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishers Co, 65-72.

Saine, N. L., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Computer-assisted remedial reading intervention for school beginners at-risk for reading disability. Child Development, 82, (3), 1013–1028.


Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Kujala, J.V., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., Brandeis, D., & Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. PNAS, 107 (17), 7939-7944.

Heinola, K., Latvala, J-M., Heikkilä, R., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Lukutaidon ennustaminen esikouluiässä – Lapsen tuen tarpeen tunnustaminen lukemaan oppimisessa ensimmäisellä ja toisella luokalla. NMI-Bulletin, 20 (4), 35-49.

Huemer, S., Aro, M., Landerl, K., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Repeated reading of syllables among Finnish-speaking children with poor reading skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(4), 317-340.

Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Estimation and visualization of confusability of matrices from adaptive measurement data. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54, 196-207.

Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). A Bayesian-optimal principle for learner-friendly adaptation in learning games. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54(2), 247-255.

Lyytinen, H. (2010). State-of-Science Review: New Technologies and Interventions for Learning Difficulties: Dyslexia in Finnish as a Case Study. In Cooper, C., J. Field, Goswami, U., & Jenkis, R., B.J. Sahakian (Eds). Mental Capital and Mental Wellbeing. UK: Office of Science and Innovation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 859-866.

McCandliss, B.D. (2010). Educational neuroscience: The early years (Commentary). PNAS, (

Saine, N. L., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Predicting word-level reading fluency outcomes in three contrastive groups: Remedial and computer-assisted remedial reading intervention, and mainstream instruction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 402-414.

Lyytinen, H., Erskine, J., Kujala, J., Ojanen, E., & Richardson, U. (2009). In search of a science-based application: A learning tool for reading acquisition. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 668–675.

Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2009). Lukivaikeutta ennaltaehkäisevä harjoittelu. In O. Aaltonen, R. Aulanko, A. Iivonen, A. Klippi & M. Vainio (Eds.) “Puhuva ihminen –Puhetieteiden perusteet” (Speaking man –Basics in Speech Sciences). Otava, Helsinki, 283-291.

Räsänen, P., Salminen, J., Wilson, A.J., Aunio, P., & Dehaene, S. (2009). Computer-assisted intervention for children with low numeracy skills. Cognitive Development, 24, 450-472.

Hintikka, S., Landerl, K., Aro, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2008). Training Reading Fluency: Is it important to practice oral articulation and is generalization possible? Annals of Dyslexia, 58, 59-79.

Lyytinen, H., Ronimus, M., Alanko, A., Poikkeus, A. & Taanila, M. (2007). Early identification of dyslexia and the use of computer game-based practice to support reading acquisition. Nordic Psychology, 59 (2), 109-126.

Vilenius, M., Kujala, J. V., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Okamoto, T. (2007). Bayesian Student Modelling in a Finnish Language Learning Program. IEICE Technical Report, 106, 583, ET2006-139, 191-196.

PhD dissertations related to GraphoGame (or its Finnish version Ekapeli)

February, P. J. (2018). Teaching and learning to read in Afrikaans: teacher competence and computer-assisted support. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Glatz, T. (2018). Serious games as a level playing field for early literacy: A behavioural and neurophysiological evaluation. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen]. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Borleffs, L. E. (2018). Cracking the code: Towards understanding, diagnosing and remediating dyslexia in Standard Indonesian. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen]. Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Lee, L. M. (2017). Reading fluency in monolingual and bilingual primary school children: cognitive mechanisms and remediation of difficulties. [Doctoral dissertation, University College Cork]. CORA the Cork Open Research Archive.

Fina, N. (2016). Evaluation de” GRAPHOGAME”, un logiciel d’entraînement à la lecture, sur tablette, en contexte scolaire. [Doctoral dissertation, Aix-Marseille University]. AIX-MRS-Marseille-Timone-Med-Odo.

Heikkilä, Riikka 2015. Rapid automatized naming and reading fluency in children with learning difficulties. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Puhakka, C. S. A. (2015). Digital solutions for multilingual learning environments: the case of GraphoGame™ adaptations in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Ktisti, C. (2015). Computer-based remediation for learning difficulties in a consistent orthography: Comparing the effects of two theory-driven programs [Doctoral dissertation, University of Cyprus]. Gnosis Institutional Repository.

Folotiya, J. (2014). Influence of Grade One teachers and Graphogame on initial literacy acquisition: Lusaka District [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä/University of Zambia]. JYX Digital Repository.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C. (2014). Rethinking Sound: Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing children using cochlear implants or hearing aids [Doctoral dissertation, Linköping University]. Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet.

Peltomaa, K. (2014). “Opinkohan mä lukemaan?”: lukivaikeuksien tunnistaminen ja kuntouttaminen alkuopetusvaiheessa [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Pennala, R. (2013). Perception and learning of Finnish quantity: study in children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and Russian second-language learners [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Ronimus, M. (2012). Digitaalisen oppimispelin motivoivuus: havaintoja Ekapeliä pelanneista lapsista [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Oksanen, A. (2012). Auditiivisen ja kielellisen harjoittelun vaikutus kolmannella luokalla olevien heikkojen lukijoiden lukutaitoon [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Ketonen, R. (2010). Dysleksiariski oppimisen haasteena. Fonologisen tietoisuuden interventio ja lukemaan oppiminen [Doctoral dissertation, University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Saine, N. (2010). On the Rocky Road of Reading: Effects of Computer-assisted Reading Intervention for At-risk Children [Doctoral dissertation University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Huemer, S. (2009). Training reading skills: towards fluency [Doctoral dissertation,University of Jyväskylä]. JYX Digital Repository.

Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L. (2009). Lukemisen vaikeuden kuntoutus ensiluokkalaisilla: Kolme pedagogista interventiota [Doctoral dissertation, University of Helsinki]. HELDA – Digital Repository of the University of Helsinki.

Additionally there are more than 100 master theses associated with the research building the evidence based foundation of the Ekapeli/Graphogame technology.