Publications associated with GraphoGame/GraphoLearn technology

Below is a publication list of selected scientific publications since 2007 from our research group. Our aim is to deliver evidence-based and scientifically studied learning games.

Peer-reviewed articles:

Engström, E., Kallioinen, P., von Mentzer, C. N., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Sahlén, B., … & Uhlén, I. (2019). Computer-assisted reading intervention for children with sensorineural hearing loss using hearing aids: Effects on auditory event-related potentials and mismatch negativity. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 117, 17-25.

Ronimus, M., Eklund, K., Pesu, L., & Lyytinen, H. (2019). Supporting struggling readers with digital game-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 1-25.

McTigue, E. M., Solheim, O. J., Zimmer, W. K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2019). Critically Reviewing GraphoGame Across the World: Recommendations and Cautions for Research and Implementation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Word-Reading Acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly,1-29.

Pleisch, G., Karipidis, I. I., Brauchli, C., Röthlisberger, M., Hofstetter, C., Stämpfli, P., … & Brem, S. (2019). Emerging neural specialization of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex to characters through phonological association learning in preschool children. NeuroImage, 189, 813-831.

Lyytinen, H., Ojanen, E., Jere-Folotiya, J., Ngorosho, S. D., Sampa, F., February, P., … & Serpell, R. (2019). Challenges Associated with Reading Acquisition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Promotion of Literacy in Multilingual Contexts. In Improving Early Literacy Outcomes (pp. 119-132). Brill Sense.

Patel, P., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2018). GraphoLearn India: The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention in Supporting Struggling Readers of English. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1045. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01045 Open access

Solheim, O. J., Frijters, J. C., Lundetræ, K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2018). Effectiveness of an early reading intervention in a semi-transparent orthography: A group randomised controlled trial. Learning and Instruction, 58, 65-79.

Ngorosho, D. (2018). Enhancing the Acquisition of Basic Reading Skills in Kiswahili Using GraphoGame. Papers in Education and Development, (35).

Serpell, R. (2018). Grounding Innovative Promotion of Literacy in Local Funds of Knowledge. Papers in Education and Development, (35).

Worth, J., Nelson, J., Harland, J., Bernardinelli, D., & Styles, B. (2018). GraphoGame Rime. Evaluation report and executive summary. National Foundation for Educational Research. This is not peer-reviewed publication, but an independent evaluation report.

Serpell, R., Jere-Folotiya, J., Chansa-Kabali, T., Munachaka, J., Maumbi, M. N., Yalukanda, C., … & Lyytinen, H. (2017). A Culturally Sensitive Approach to Promoting Initial Literacy Development in Africa: Ongoing and Planned Research and Development at the University of Zambia’s Centre for Promotion of Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa (CAPOLSA). In Handbook of Applied Developmental Science in Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 313-334). Springer, New York, NY. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7328-6_17 Open access

Lundetræ, K., Solheim, O. J., Schwippert, K., & Uppstad, P. H. (2017). Protocol:’On Track’, a group-randomized controlled trial of an early reading intervention. International Journal of Educational Research, 86, 87-95.

Puolakanaho, A., & Latvala, J. M. (2017). Embedding Preschool Assessment Methods into Digital Learning Games to Predict Early Reading Skills. Human Technology, 13, 216-236.

Borleffs, E., Glatz, T. K., Daulay, D. A., Richardson, U., Zwarts, F., & Maassen, B. A. M. (2017). GraphoGame SI: the development of a technology-enhanced literacy learning tool for Standard Indonesian. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1-19.

Ruiz, J., Lassault, J., Sprenger-Charolles, L., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Ziegler, J. (2017). GraphoGame: un outil numérique pour enfants en difficultés d’apprentissage de la lecture. ANAE:Actualtites de neuropsychologie de l’enfant, 333-343. Open access

Li, Y., Li, H., De, X., Sheng, X., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2017). 游戏化学习促进学生个性化发展的实证研究——以GraphoGame拼音游戏为例 [An Evidence-based Research on Facilitating Students’ Development of Individualize Learning by Game-based Learning-Pinyin GraphoGame as an Example]. China Educational Technology. 364, 95-101.

Baker, D. L., Basaraba, D. L., Smolkowski, K., Conry, J., Hautala, J., Richardson, U., … & Cole, R. (2017). Exploring the cross-linguistic transfer of reading skills in Spanish to English in the context of a computer adaptive reading intervention. Bilingual Research Journal, 1-18.

Rosas, R., Escobar, J. P., Ramírez, M. P., Meneses, A., & Guajardo, A. (2017). Impact of a computer-based intervention in Chilean children at risk of manifesting reading difficulties/Impacto de una intervención basada en ordenador en niños chilenos con riesgo de manifestar dificultades lectoras. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 40(1), 158-188.

Karipidis, I., Pleisch, G., Röthlisberger, M., Hofstetter, C., Dornbierer, D., Stämpfli, P., & Brem, S. (2017). Neural initialization of audiovisual integration in prereaders at varying risk for developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 1038-1055.

Nieminen, L., Hautala, J., Heikkilä, R., Rantanen, V., Latvala, J.-M., & Richardson, U. (2017). ReadAll-peli: digitaalinen apu lukutaidon varhaiskehityksen tukemiseen ja arviointiin. In H. Savolainen, R. Vilkko, & L. Vähäkylä (Eds.), Oppimisen tulevaisuus (pp. 70-79). Helsinki, Finland: Gaudeamus Oy. This is not a peer-reviewed publication but a chapter in a research book.

Richardson, U., & Nieminen, L. (2017). The contributions and limits of phonological awareness in learning to read. In N. Kucirkova, C. E. Snow, V. Grøver, & C. McBride (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Early Literacy Education: A Contemporary Guide to Literacy Teaching and Interventions in a Global Context (pp. 264-272). Routledge. This is not a peer-reviwed publication but a chapter in a research book.

Li, Y., Li, H., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2016). Early identification of poor readers and preventive training in Chinese using Pinyin Graphogame: results from disadvantaged children in Mainland. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 831.

Mourgues, C., Tan, M., Hein, S., Ojanen, E., Reich, J., Lyytinen, H., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2016). Paired associate learning tasks and their contribution to reading skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 46, 54-63. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.12.003

Sucena, A., Silva, A. F., & Viana, F. L. (2016). Intervenção precoce nas dificuldades de aprendizagem da leitura com recurso ao software Graphogame 1. Letrônica, 9(2), 200-212.

Ojanen E., Ronimus M., Ahonen T., Chansa-Kabali T., February P., Jere-Folotiya J., Kauppinen K-P., Ketonen R., Ngorosho D., Pitkänen M., Puhakka S., Sampa F., Walubita G., Yalukanda C., Pugh K., Richardson U., Serpell R.. and Lyytinen H. (2015). GraphoGame – a catalyst for multi-level promotion of literacy in diverse contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 671, 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00671 Open access

Ojanen, E., Jere-Folotiya, J., Yalukanda, C., Sampa, F., Nshimbi, C., Katongo, M., . . . , & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Mobile Solution for Better Reading Instruction in Rural Africa. In P. Cunningham, & M. Cunningham (Eds.), IST-Africa 2015 Conference Proceedings (pp. 408-420). IEEE. doi:10.1109/ISTAFRICA.2015.7190559

Puhakka, S., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Technology enhanced literacy learning in multilingual Sub-Saharan Africa : The case of GraphoGame Kikuyu and Kiswahili adaptations in Kenya. Piet A. M. Kommers, Pedro Isaias and Tomayess Issa (Eds), “Perspectives on Social Media: A Yearbook,” 183-190.

Ronimus, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Is School a Better Environment than Home for Digital Game-Based Learning?: The Case of GraphoGame. Human Technology, 11 (2), 123-147. doi:10.17011/ht/urn.201511113637 Open access

Ronimus, M. & Richardson, U. (2014). Digital game-based training of early reading skills: overview of the GraphoGame method in a highly transparent orthography. Estudios de Psicologia, 35 (3), 648-661.

Jere-Folotiya, J., Chansa-Kabali, T., Munachaka, J., Sampa, F., Yalukanda, C., Westerholm, J., Richardson, U., Serpell, R., Lyytinen. H. (2014). The effect of using a mobile literacy game to improve literacy levels of grade one students in Zambian schools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62, 4, 417-436. doi:10.1007/s11423-014-9342-9

Papadopoulos, T., Ktisti, C., Christoforou, C., Loizou, M. (2014). Cognitive and Linguistic Dynamics of Reading Remediation. A Tribute to J. P. Das. In: Papadopoulos, T., Parrila, R., Kirby, J. (Eds). Cognition, Intelligence, and Achievement (pp. 311-343). New York: Academic Press.

Pennala, R., Richardson, U., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., Martin, M. (2014). Computer game as a tool for training the identification of phonemic length. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 39, 4, 149-158. doi:10.3109/14015439.2013.810302

Puhakka, C., S., Lyytinen, H., Richardson, U. (2014). Technology enhanced literacy learning in multilingual Sub-Saharan Africa. In Perspectives on Social Media: A Yearbook, P. Kommers, P., Isaias & O. Issa (Eds), (pp. 183-190). London: Routledge.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B., Dahlström, Ö., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Kallioinen, P. & Uhlén, I. (2014). Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 448-455. DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12149

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B., Dahlström, Ö., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., … & Uhlén, I. (2014). The phonics approach in swedish children using cochlear implants or hearing aids: inspecting phonological gain. Journal of Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids, 2(3), 117. doi:10.4172/2375-4427.1000117

Lyytinen, H. (2014). How to assure reading skills for all. In M. Matthies, L. Pulkkinen, L.M. Pinto & C. Clouder (Eds.) Improving the Quality of Chilhood in Europe 2014, Volume 5 (pp.106-117). Brussels, Belgium: Alliance for Childhood European Network Foundation.

Richardson, U. & Lyytinen, H. (2014).  The GraphoGame method: The theoretical and methodological background of the technology-enhanced learning environment for learning to read. Human Technology, 10 (1), 39-60. doi:10.17011/ht/urn.201405281859 Open access

Kamykowska, J., Haman, E., Latvala, J-M , Richardson, U. & Lyytinen H. (2014). Developmental changes of early reading skills in six-year-old polish children and GraphoGame as a computer-based intervention to support them. L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 13-14, 1573-1731. Open access

Pennala, R., Richardson, R., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., & Martin, M. (2014). Computer game as a tool for training identification of phonemic length. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 149-158.

Ronimus, M., Kujala, J., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2014). Children’s engagement during digital game-based learning of reading: The effects of time, rewards, and challenge. Computers & Education, 71, 237-246.

Heikkilä, R., Aro, M., Närhi, V., Westerholm, J. & Ahonen, T. (2013). Does training in syllable recognition improve reading speed? A computer-based trial with poor readers from second and third grade. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(6), 398-414.

Nakeva von Mentzer, C., Lyxell, B., Sahlén, B.,  Malin, W., Lindgren, M., Ors, M., Kallioinen, P., Uhlén, I. (2013). Computer-assisted training of phoneme–grapheme correspondence for children who are deaf and hard of hearing: Effects on phonological processing skills. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 77, 12, 2049–2057.

Ojanen, E., Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2013). Technology-Enhanced Literacy Learning in Zambia: Observations from a Multilingual Literacy Environment. Insights in Learning Disabilities, 10 (2), 103-127.

Bhide, A., Power, A., & Goswami, U. (2013). A Rhythmic Musical Intervention for Poor Readers: A Comparison of Efficacy With a Letter-Based Intervention. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7 (2), 113-123.

Kyle, F., Kujala, J.V., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Goswami, U. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme. Reading Research Quarterly, 48 (1), 61-76.

Bach, S., Richardson, U., Brandeis, D., Martin, E., & Brem, S. (2013). Print- specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade. NeuroImage, 82, 605-615.

Saine, N., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2013). Long-term intervention effects of spelling development for children with compromised preliteracy skills. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 29 (4), 333-357.

Lovio, R., Halttunen, A., Lyytinen, H., Näätänen, R., & Kujala, T. (2012). Reading skill and neural processing accuracy improvement after a 3-hour intervention in preschoolers with difficulties in reading-related skills. Brain Research, 1448, 42-55.

Lyytinen, H., & Lampola M. (2012). Tieteen tuloksista maailmalle – haasteita esimerkkien valossa. Tiedepolitiikka, 37, (2), 7-16.

Lyytinen, H., Havimäki, S-M., Latvala, J-M., Lampola, M. & Richardson, U. (2012). Ekapeli – oppimispeli lukemisen ydintaitojen harjoittamiseen. In: Hautamäki, A. & Oksanen, K. (Eds.) Yliopisto palveluinnovaatioiden kehittäjänä (s. 114-133). Jyväskylän yliopisto, Jyväskylä.

Aro, M., Huemer, S., Heikkilä, R., & Mönkkönen, V. (2011). Sujuva lukutaito suomalaislapsen haasteena. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 153-155.

Guttorm, T.K., Alho-Näveri, L., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Brain activation measures in predicting reading skills and evaluating intervention effects in children at risk for dyslexia. In P. McCardle, B. Miller, J. R. Lee & O.J.L. Tzeng (Eds.), Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link. (pp.133-140). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Latvala, J.-M., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). LukiMat ja Ekapeli – ennaltaehkäisevää tukea suomalaisille lukiriskilapsille. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 147-152.

Lyytinen, H. (2011). Lukivaikeuden varhainen tunnistus ja ennaltaehkäisy on mahdollista. Psykologia, 46, (2-3), 156-157.

Pennala, R., Richardson, R., Ylinen, S., Lyytinen, H., & Martin, M. (2011). Tietokoneavusteinen suomen kielen kvantiteetin harjoittelu: venäjänkielisen suomea opettelevan lapsen ja suomenkielisen luku- ja kirjoitushäiriöisen lapsen vertailu. Puhe ja kieli, 31, 1, 3-24.

Richardson, U., Aro, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Prevention of reading difficulties in highly transparent Finnish. In P. McCardle, J. Ren, & O. Tzeng (Eds.). Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishers Co, 65-72.

Saine, N. L., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2011). Computer-assisted remedial reading intervention for school beginners at-risk for reading disability. Child Development, 82, (3), 1013–1028.

Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Kujala, J.V., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., Brandeis, D., & Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. PNAS, 107 (17), 7939-7944.

Heinola, K., Latvala, J-M., Heikkilä, R., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Lukutaidon ennustaminen esikouluiässä – Lapsen tuen tarpeen tunnustaminen lukemaan oppimisessa ensimmäisellä ja toisella luokalla. NMI-Bulletin, 20 (4), 35-49.

Huemer, S., Aro, M., Landerl, K., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Repeated reading of syllables among Finnish-speaking children with poor reading skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(4), 317-340.

Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Estimation and visualization of confusability of matrices from adaptive measurement data. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54, 196-207.

Kujala, J., Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). A Bayesian-optimal principle for learner-friendly adaptation in learning games. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 54(2), 247-255.

Lyytinen, H. (2010). State-of-Science Review: New Technologies and Interventions for Learning Difficulties: Dyslexia in Finnish as a Case Study. In Cooper, C., J. Field, Goswami, U., & Jenkis, R., B.J. Sahakian (Eds). Mental Capital and Mental Wellbeing. UK: Office of Science and Innovation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 859-866.

McCandliss, B.D. (2010). Educational neuroscience: The early years (Commentary). PNAS, (

Saine, N. L., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Ahonen, T., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Predicting word-level reading fluency outcomes in three contrastive groups: Remedial and computer-assisted remedial reading intervention, and mainstream instruction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 402-414.

Lyytinen, H., Erskine, J., Kujala, J., Ojanen, E., & Richardson, U. (2009). In search of a science-based application: A learning tool for reading acquisition. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 668–675.

Richardson, U., & Lyytinen, H. (2009). Lukivaikeutta ennaltaehkäisevä harjoittelu. In O. Aaltonen, R. Aulanko, A. Iivonen, A. Klippi & M. Vainio (Eds.) “Puhuva ihminen –Puhetieteiden perusteet” (Speaking man –Basics in Speech Sciences). Otava, Helsinki, 283-291.

Räsänen, P., Salminen, J., Wilson, A.J., Aunio, P., & Dehaene, S. (2009). Computer-assisted intervention for children with low numeracy skills. Cognitive Development, 24, 450-472.

Hintikka, S., Landerl, K., Aro, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2008). Training Reading Fluency: Is it important to practice oral articulation and is generalization possible? Annals of Dyslexia, 58, 59-79.

Lyytinen, H., Ronimus, M., Alanko, A., Poikkeus, A. & Taanila, M. (2007). Early identification of dyslexia and the use of computer game-based practice to support reading acquisition. Nordic Psychology, 59 (2), 109-126.

Vilenius, M., Kujala, J. V., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Okamoto, T. (2007). Bayesian Student Modelling in a Finnish Language Learning Program. IEICE Technical Report, 106, 583, ET2006-139, 191-196.

PhD dissertations related to GraphoGame (or its Finnish version Ekapeli)

February, P. J. (2018). Teaching and learning to read in Afrikaans: teacher competence and computer-assisted support. JYU dissertations, Faculty of Educatin and Psychology, University of Jyväskylä.

Glatz, T. (2018). Serious games as a level playing field for early literacy: A behavioural and neurophysiological evaluation. [Groningen]: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Borleffs, L. E. (2018). Cracking the code: Towards understanding, diagnosing and remediating dyslexia in Standard Indonesian [Groningen]: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Lee, L. M. (2017). Reading fluency in monolingual and bilingual primary school children: cognitive mechanisms and remediation of difficulties. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.

Fina, N. (2016). Evaluation de” GRAPHOGAME”, un logiciel d’entraînement à la lecture, sur tablette, en contexte scolaire (Doctoral dissertation).

Heikkilä, Riikka 2015. Rapid automatized naming and reading fluency in children with learning difficulties. University of Jyväskylä.

Puhakka, C. S. A. (2015). Digital solutions for multilingual learning environments: the case of GraphoGame™ adaptations in Kenya. Jyväskylä studies in education, psychology and social research; 0075-4625; 525.

Ktisti, Christiana 2015. Computer-based remediation for learning difficulties in a consistent orthography: Comparing the effects of two theory-driven programs. University of Cyprus.

Folotiya, J. (2014). Influence of Grade One teachers and Graphogame on initial literacy acquisition: Lusaka District (Doctoral dissertation, Doctoral thesis, University of Jyväskylä/University of Zambia, Jyväskylä Studies in Education, Psychology and Social Research, Jyväskylä. Available at: https://jyx. jyu. fi/dspace/handle/123456789/44114).

Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia 2014. Rethinking Sound: Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing children using cochlear implants or hearing aids. Linköping University.

Peltomaa, Kaisa 2014. “Opinkohan mä lukemaan?”: lukivaikeuksien tunnistaminen ja kuntouttaminen alkuopetusvaiheessa. University of Jyväskylä.

Pennala, Riitta 2013. Perception and learning of Finnish quantity: study in children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and Russian second-language learners. University of Jyväskylä.

Ronimus, Miia 2012. Digitaalisen oppimispelin motivoivuus: havaintoja Ekapeliä pelanneista lapsista. University of Jyväskylä.

Oksanen, Annamaija 2012. Auditiivisen ja kielellisen harjoittelun vaikutus kolmannella luokalla olevien heikkojen lukijoiden lukutaitoon. University of Jyväskylä.

Ketonen, Ritva 2010. Dysleksiariski oppimisen haasteena. Fonologisen tietoisuuden interventio ja lukemaan oppiminen. University of Jyväskylä.

Saine, Nina 2010. On the Rocky Road of Reading: Effects of Computer-assisted Reading Intervention for At-risk Children. University of Jyväskylä.

Huemer, Sini 2009. Training reading skills: towards fluency. University of Jyväskylä.

Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta 2009. Lukemisen vaikeuden kuntoutus ensiluokkalaisilla: Kolme pedagogista interventiota. University of Helsinki.

Additionally there are more than 100 master theses associated with the research building the evidence based foundation of the Ekapeli/Graphogame technology.